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Variation and Deviation

Variation The number of degrees east or west that Magnetic North is from the True (Geographic) North. Variation changes according to your position relative to the North Magnetic Pole. It also changes gradually in any one position due to the movement of the magnetic poles. Variation is shown on Mercator charts at the centre of […]

Squat Effect

The squat effect is a phenomenon which causes an increase in ship’s draught, trim and reduces UKC. It is caused by the relative movement of the ship’s hull through the surrounding body of water. Squat occurs when a vessel is making way through the water or is not making way but laying in flowing water […]

Gyro Compass

A gyro compass is a non-magnetic compass which is based on a wheel/disc that rotates at high speed about it’s spin axis as well as the rotation of the earth. Gyro compasses have two main advantages over magnetic compasses: They find true north as determined by the axis of the Earth’s rotation. They are unaffected […]

Plane Sailing Method

Download Description A document explaining the plane sailing method with a worked example. Original Publisher MarineDocs

Principles of Chartwork Plotting

Download Description A step by step PDF guide covering the core Chartwork plots including: Find an EP Principles of a running fix Find tide experienced Course to Steer Type A Course to Steer Type B Original Publisher WMA

Magnetic Compass Adjustment

Download Description This document presents information and procedures for magnetic compass adjustment. Sections 601 through to 613 cover procedures designed to eliminate compass errors satisfactorily. Original Publisher Unknown, chapter from book.

Ice Seamanship

Download Description A book published by the Nautical Institute on the subject of Ice Seamanship. Including: Ice types, general terms and definitions, ice identification Ballasting in ice stopping in ice Safety rules Trimming for ice Approaching ice Avoiding floes Action to avoid icebergs and loose ice Ice breakers Canadian Arctic Charts Emergency Charts Glacier Ice […]

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